COMMUNITY BASED WASTE TO ENERGY FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION IN EAST INDONESIA
A PILOT PROJECT IN KUPANG, NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR
PROCESSING THE DOMESTIC WASTE AND BIOMASS WASTE WITH BIODRYING (PEUYEUMISASI) METHOD AND CONVERT IT INTO ENERGY
COMMUNITY BASED WASTE TO ENERGY FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION IN EAST INDONESIA

A PILOT PROJECT IN KUPANG, NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR
PROCESSING THE DOMESTIC WASTE AND BIOMASS WASTE WITH BIODRYING (PEUYEUMISASI) METHOD AND CONVERT IT INTO ENERGY

PROJECT BACKGROUND


PROBLEMS

The central and local government have spent the annual budget to solve waste management problems by installing the centralized and large-scale waste management technologies. On the other hand, the central government has still focused on developing 35.000 MW as the national electricity program. However, those programs have still delayed because of commercial issues impacted to the return of investment; land acquisitions, and in terms of electricity the government with PLN has to set up the high investment in transmission and distribution line especially in East Indonesia.

OPPORTUNITIES

TOSS-LK has been designed for long term small-scale waste management and waste to energy solution in 528 cities and 70.000 villages including rural areas across Indonesia. The methodology of TOSS-LK has been proven by PT PLN (Persero), The Ministry of ESDM, and The Ministry of LHK. It’s because the successful pilot project in Klungkung, Bali and several national rewards in Energy and Environment.

There are two main issues related to national development goals in Indonesia. Firstly, the waste crisis in cities. Secondly, the lack of electricity distribution in rural/isolated areas. In terms of waste crisis, the central and local government have set up waste to energy projects in 12 landfill in Indonesia. In terms of electricity, there are lots of high capacity power plants’ projects. However, those projects have delayed because of regulations and commercial aspects, which has not been matched by the developers and/or investors. It includes the lack of preparation to set up certified-technical human resources.

PILOT PROJECT: COMMUNITY BASED WASTE TO ENERGY PROGRAM IN KLUNGKUNG, BALI


Since August 2017, Dr. Ir. Surpiadi Legino, MM., MA., MBA. with his team has cooperated with PT Indonesia Power and the government of Klungkung, Bali to create pilot project of community based waste to energy for distributed power generation (TOSS-LK). The pilot project of TOSS-LK was basically trying to solve the waste management problem in Klungkung, Bali. This by reason that Klungkung has become the international tourism destination because have the beauty of Nusa Penida Island. Unfortunately, Klungkung has the waste management problem as follow:

  • Klungkung has produced 212 tons of waste a day. The main landfills (TPA) was closed by government in December 2017. Within a year TOSS can be solve the waste management problems in 18 villages.
  • Klungkung has 2 more landfills (TPA) in Nusa Penida and would be overcapacity at the end of 2019.

During the implementation, the TOSS-LK team has tried to utilize the dried waste because of biodrying process as the source of energy. This idea had been supported by PT Indonesia Power and became the waste to energy research. On December 2018, both PT Indonesia Power and Government of Klungkung had the government awards. At the same time, PT Indonesia Power with TOSS-LK Team was suceeded with the peformance test of co-firing in PLTU Jeranjang and integrating 30 kW and 50 kW diesel gasification to the grid. The program of TOSS-LK has been run in 2019 and this year is the starting point to do research in continuity supply of waste pellets and commercial aspect of TOSS. On December 2019 The second performance test was done. This has become the trigger for TOSS-LK to go to the next level from research to commercial, supported by PLN Grup and the ministry of ESDM.

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HOW TO IMPLEMENT THE SUPPLY AND VALUE CHAIN MODEL TO SUSTAIN THE CONTINUITY OF SUPPLY OF WASTE PELLETS


The supply and value chain model of TOSS allows buyer and supplier to create the relationship marketing strategies by focusing on enhancing financial performance. This measured in terms of cost efficiency, optimizing production and operational activity, and accurattion in time delivery and capacity, while keep maintaining the quality of the product. In accordance with this, without the ability of the buyer-supplier to generate mutual trust and commitment, the need for relational capability and continuous improvement cannot be met, and there is a tendency for conflict within the relational activity. Following the explanation above, it can be argued that interfunctional coordination between buyer and supplier is the role of market orientation, which plays in developing a relationship marketing strategies.

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HOW TO IMPLEMENT THE SUPPLY AND VALUE CHAIN MODEL TO SUSTAIN THE CONTINUITY OF SUPPLY OF WASTE PELLETS


According to the ministry of LHK (2019), Indonesia is the third largest waste producer in the world. There are many government programs to reduce the volume of waste: from the campaign ”reduce, reuse, recycle” until implementation of waste power plant (PLTSa). Howerver, those programs have many problems and have not been running yet. This condition can be the opportunity for community based waste to energy for distributed power generation program as a solution for waste management and convert the waste into energy. Additionally, in East Indonesia, there are 120.7 million Ha of forestry, which potentially has become the new resoures of energy. In relation to the the community based waste to energy, there are more than 25,000 Villages near the forestry with 10.2 million of people. With community based waste to energy for distributed power generation program, the small-scale scattered hybrid power plant (utilizing new energy and renewable energy resources) can achieve the target of 23% renewable energy implementation by 2020, 100% electrification ratio, and the most important thing is economic development in rural area and island can be growing up.

 

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WHAT WE HAVE LEARNT DURING THE SHORT COURSE OF AAI 2019 IN PERTH, AUSTRALIA?


During the short course, We had done comparative study and industrial site visit to the Australia Company. There are several technologies and business model that can inline with the TOSS-LK program to solve two biggest problems: waste management in cities and electrification ratio in rural/remote areas. Additionally, there are some opportunities for Indonesia- Australia to do Government to Government Cooperation in the scope of Energy and Environmental Sustainability. As TOSS-LK has become the national program, We have got ideas to create hybrid system of exsisting Photovoltaic and Wind Turbine with Diesel-Gasification. The mix energy can be powerful with the battery as the storage of energy.

**)The concept shows on this presentation can be follow up as the research collaboration, create the pilot project, moreover propose as the Government to Government Program (Indonesia-Australia) to solve the waste management problem (including the land and forest fire in both countries), utilizing the biomass as the cofiring, and collaborate to support Indonesia government in renewable energy and electrification ratio.

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WHAT WE HAVE LEARNT DURING THE SHORT COURSE OF AAI 2019 IN PERTH, AUSTRALIA?


In the future, Indonesia has to instal Distributed hybrid system by combining diesel-gasification, photovoltaic, and wind power. This model will be sufficient in rural and remote area and can be developed without necessarily waiting for the construction of interconnected distribution lines. Technically, distributed hybrid system will also reduce the transmission losses and the problem of excessive transformer overload and drop voltage. It also can be an answer to the government target of having 23% of renewable portion in the national energy by 2025.

To support the community based waste to energy for distributed power generation program, TOSS-LK needs KLISI as the online platform to monitor, control, maintain, and support the whole supply and value chain activities.

KLISI will become the market place for small-medium enterprises for production equipment procurement including the provision of human resources as an expert and operational labors, which will be recruited from local communities, assessed and trained by the developer and local government.

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WHAT WE HAVE LEARNT DURING THE SHORT COURSE OF AAI 2019 IN PERTH, AUSTRALIA?


COMPRESSED HYDROGEN & COMPRESSED SYNGAS? YES WE MUST TRY!

There are many issues related with the fossil fuel as the primary source of energy, from the environmental damages, the limited resources, and the fluctuated price of fossil fuel. The world has more concerned with the green energy, new source energy and the implementation of renewable energy technologies. In terms of green energy, We have natural gas which can be compressed and liquefied. The price has been competitive, but gas is categorized as fossil fuel, which limited. There are new source of energy such as geothermal and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF). However in developing countries the implementation of geothermal has been researched because of the high investment in capital and operational expenditure. The potential new source of energy, which can be treated as natural gas (compressed or liquefied) is syntetic gas that comes from the gasfication process of RDF (domestic waste and/or biomass waste).

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WHAT WE HAVE LEARNT DURING THE SHORT COURSE OF AAI 2019 IN PERTH, AUSTRALIA?


As the state owned company, which 100 percent owned by government, PT PLN (Persero) has to provide the reliable and sustainable electrification across Indonesia. The community based waste to energy for distributed power generation program can be the solution for PT PLN (Persero) to achieve the government target to implement 23% of Renewable Energy , 100 percent electrification ratio, and the way to reduce the green house gases from fossil fuel power plant, which dominantly are steam power plant

Those three ministries have been set up the regulation in waste to energy, distributed power generation, cofiring, including the feed in tariff, tipping fee, and price of waste pellets

As the startup company, Comestoarra.com has to integrate TOSS with the PLN and governments program and create the supply-value chain management system for the purpose of energy availability, energy equity, and environment sustainability in East Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara Barat, and Nusa Tenggara Timur

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HOW TO ACHIEVE THE GOVERNMENT PROGRAM AND COMMERCIALIZATION THE CONCEPT OF COMMUNITY BASED WASTE TO ENERGY FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION?


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THE ECOSYSTEM OF COMMUNITY BASED WASTE TO ENERGY FOR DISTRIBTUED POWER GENERATION


The concept of community based waste to energy for distributed power generation is adjusted with the Indonesia geographical condition and social-psychological aspects, which has become the major factor in many postponed project of waste management and renewable energy. The biggest challenges are including high investment in land and acquisition, social capital, financial closing, complex permit procedures, and for electricity projects - right of way for transmission and distribution lines. By implementing community based waste to energy for distributed power generation, the ecosystem will be created and all stakeholders can collaborate. The collaboration allows to Share opportunity, Share the Capital and Operational Expenditure Incentives, and the way to engage with local community and small medium enterprise.

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THE ECOSYSTEM OF COMMUNITY BASED WASTE TO ENERGY FOR DISTRIBTUED POWER GENERATION


In 2020, The directorate general of EBTKE, PT PLN (Persero), PT Indonesia Power, and comestoarra.com will do the assessment of quality, quantity, time delivery, and cost of waste pellets as the feed stock of 1 percent co-firing in PLTU Jeranjang, Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat. This has become the semi- commercial stage for co-firing program initiated by the directorate general of EBTKE and PT PLN (Persero). Parralel with that, the stakeholders involve will create the regulations related with the price of pellets, the standard operational procedures, and the certification of technician and operators. In this program, comestoarra.com will lead the production of waste pellets and collaborate with PLN and Indonesia Power to regularly test the waste pellets into the labs.

The government of Trenggalek and Jombang want to implement TOSS to solve the waste management problems. This is the big opportunity to expand the concept of community based waste to energy for distributed power generation as well as help the government to create the local innovation to get the award from the central government (like Klungkung was achieved in 2017. Additionally, the government of Trenggalek and Jombang can supply the waste pellets for the gasfication or co-firing purposes.

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