The current issues might be highlighted by all stakehoders in Indonesia are waste management problem, ratio electrification issues, and the target of 23% of Renewable Energy implementation by 2025. In July 2019, the president of Indonesia was disappointed with the lack of inter-ministry coordination to solve the waste management problems by installing the waste power plant (PLTSa) in 12 cities in Indonesia. The ratio electrification, especially in East Indonesia has impacted towards energy availability, energy efficiency, energy security, and energy sustainability. Therefore, the Java-Bali centrist related with the electricity has become the major issues related with the regional economic development. Considering that the electricity sector is fundamental in triggering economic growth, distributed power generation has to be implemented by energy and electricity stakeholders includingPT PLN (Persero) and its subsidiaries to achieve the ratio electrification target as well as the strategy to obtain the target of 23 percent of Renewable Energy by 2025.
For the purpose of cost efficiency and to acquire those three targets above, comestoarra.com with PT PLN (Persero) and the ministry of energy and mineral resources have set up the community based waste to energy production as the resources of alternative fuel for distributed power generation. The community based waste to energy (TOSS) have been realized by implementing Peuyeumisasi (bio-drying process) researched by Dr Ir Supriadi Legino and Ir Sonny Djatnika Sunda Djaja. It might solve both waste (municipal, forestry, fishery, and farm industries) and energy (heat and electricity) problems in Indonesia. The product of TOSS, which is waste pellet with the calories of 3300 – 4500 kcal/kg can be easily produced and managed by local community. For the business purposes, the pellets can be stored in local small medium enterprises before transported to the off-taker (PT PLN (Persero) Group, Independent Power Producers Cement Companies, as well as local industries). Looking at this opportunity, TOSS would possibly gain both tangible and intangible benefits for the society. For the purpose of continuity of supply, therefore applying supply-value chain management system is important as decentralization can be more efficient rather than centralization. Hence, TOSS need to be standardized and has to be regularly controlled both quality and quantity. And the most important thing is that the supply-value chain management strategies can empower local people and local small medium enterprises as the producer of waste pellets and the technician of TOSS.
For the purpose of continuity and sustainability, in November 2019, the director-general of EBTKE invited PT PLN (Persero) Group to discuss the 2020-2025’s plans and the director general of EBTKE commended to commercialize TOSS-LK and create a startup company to accommodate the community-based waste to energy productions both for co-firing and distributed power generation purposes. However, it needs the comprehensive feasibility studies. Parallels with that, semi commercial project has to be done by 2020/2021 to propose public policy, which related with the whole supply-value chain acitivities of community based waste to energy and distributed power generation programs. It includes the policy of waste pellets trading (rp/kg). Additionally, the semi-commercial projects are beneficial to monitor, assess, moreover improve the continuous production and supply of waste pellets from local communities.
In terms co-firing, the semi-commercial project will be executed in Steam power plant at Jeranjang, Lombok in Nusa Tenggara Barat, Steam Power Plant at Bolok, Kupang, and Ropa, Flores in NusaTenggara Timur. The continuity supply of waste pellets has become the primary concern. In this part, my responsibilities are creating the community-based waste to energy strategy, fixing the standard operational procedure, moreover starting the trial of community based waste to energy production. To support these actions, comestoarra has to do regular socialization, transfer knowledge, intensive communication with local government and local community. Another project needs to be done is installing the distributed power generation in remote areas and islands, especially in East Indonesia, aim to achieve 100 per cent electrification ratio. In this case, PT PLN (Persero) wants to implement hybrid technologies, such as small scale scattered diesel-gasification, photovoltaic, wind turbine, and storing the energy to the battery. The supply-value chain management has become the major concern for continuity and sustainability of distributed power generation implementation. In this area, comestoarra.com is appointed by directorate general EBTKE as the integrator, especially in a way to create the circular economy.
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The basic concept of TOSS is biodrying (peuyeumisasi) all kind of waste on 2x1x1 meter bamboo box. After 3-7 days (depends on the characteristic of waste), the waste will dry and the volume will reduce until 50 percent. Normally the the range of domestic waste is 3000 – 3300 kcal/kg. The pellets is equal with the middle-ranked coal, which can be used for gasification and co-firing for Steam Power Plant. Amazingly by mixing with the biomass waste, the callories has increased and absorb the sulfur content of domestic waste
The concept distributed power generation is adjusted with the Indonesia geographical condition and social-psychological aspects, which has become the major factor in many postponed project of waste management and renewable energy. The biggest challenges are including high investment in land and acquisition, social capital, financial closing, complex permit procedures, and for electricity projects - right of way for transmission and distribution lines. By implementing distributed power generation concept, the ecosystem will be created and all stakeholders can collaborate. The collaboration allows to Share opportunity, Share the Capital and Operational Expenditure Incentives, and the way to engage with local community and small medium enterprise
The supply and value chain model of TOSS allows buyer and supplier to create the relationship marketing strategies by focusing on enhancing financial performance. This measured in terms of cost efficiency, optimizing production and operational activity, and accurattion in time delivery and capacity, while keep maintaining the quality of the product. In accordance with this, without the ability of the buyer-supplier to generate mutual trustand commitment, the need for relational capability and continuous improvement cannot be met, and there is a tendency for conflict within the relational activity. Following the explanation above, it can be argued that interfunctional coordination between buyer and supplier is the role of market orientation, which plays in developing a relationship marketing strategies
To support he community based waste to energy and distributed power generation program, comestoarra needs KLISI application as the online platform to monitor, control, maintain, and support the whole supply-value chain activities. This system is developed by combining the information technology and visual communication technology, therefore the users can easily managed and got the updated information. Additionally, the users can easily engaged with the operators for the purpose of operation and maintenance
In the future, Indonesia has to install Distributed Hybrid system by combining diesel-gasification engine, photovoltaic, and wind power to prevent the intermittency issues in distributed power generation installation. This model will be sufficient in rural and remote area. Additionally this model can be developed without necessarily waiting for the construction of interconnected distribution lines. Technically, distributed hybrid system will also reduce the transmission losses and the problem of excessive transformer overload and drop voltage. It also can be an answer to the government target of having 23% of renewable portion in the national energy by 2025
TOSS has become the national program aim to support the government to achieve the target of 23 percent of renewable energy implementation by 2025. Additionally, TOSS can be a solution for 100 percent electrification ratio in remote and rural areas. In relation to this, the directorate general of EBTKE has suggested Dr. Ir. Supriadi Legino to create the startup company to run the commercial aspect of TOSS. Therefore in 2019, comestoarra was set up, lead by Arief Noerhidayat
PT PLN (Persero) has fully supported the research of TOSS since 2017. In 2020, PT PLN (Persero) has officially set up the regulation as the offtaker of waste to energy product (pallets/briquettes). Due to the board of director's regulation number 001.P/DIR/2020, PT PLN will buy the pallets/briquettes as the material for cofiring with coal in steam power plant. The requirements of pallets/briquettes has been specifically mentioned on that regulation
as the startup company, comestoarra succeeded to achieve the first winner in PGN startup competiton in 2019. Therefore, PGN has progressed in incubation process and will involve in TOSS project with comestoarra
PT LAGAS MANDIRI is a small medium enterprise, which manufacture the crusher, pallets/briquettes, gasifier engines designed by comestoarra
Sekolah Tinggi Manajemen Logistik Indonesia is the partner to provide the best human resource in supply-value chain management for comestoarra. the collaboration is including the research program in logistic, transportation, and Information Technology, which important for the development of TOSS in Indonesia
PT Jati Karya Perkasa is a small medium enterprise that helps comestoarra to manage the TOSS projects in Java regions. PT JKP has also funded comestoarra to do research, observation, and do material testing before the implementation of TOSS
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