The current issues might be highlighted by all stakeholders in Indonesia are waste management problems, ratio electrification issues, and the target of 23% of Renewable Energy implementation by 2025. In July 2019, the president of Indonesia was disappointed with the lack of significant progress due to the target to install the centralized waste power plant (PLTSa) in 12 cities in Indonesia. The projects have delayed because of disputed perspectives between the related ministries, the local government, the investors, and the off-taker about tipping fee and feed-in tariff of electricity. Focused on the national electrification, the government have to focus on the 100 per cent ratio electrification in rural and remote areas especially in East Indonesia. Additionally, the government must concern with the target of 23 per cent of renewable energy implementation by 2025 to reduce the gas emission because of the majority of power plant in Indonesia has still dominated with steam / coal-fired power plants.
Looking at these complicated conditions, comestoarra have proposed the community-based waste to energy (TOSS) for distributed power generation (KLISI) concept as the solutions for both waste management problems and electricity issues in Indonesia. The concept has been initiated by Dr.Ir. Supriadi Legino (President Commissioner of comestoarra) and Ir. Sonny Djatnika Sunda Djaja. Additionally, this concept has been researched since 2016, supported by the ministry of energy and mineral resources and PT PLN (Persero). The concept has already implemented in several locations as the pilot projects: Klungkung, Bali; Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat; and Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur.
The community based waste to energy (TOSS) have been realized by processing the waste (domestic and biomass) with Peuyeumisasi method (bio-drying). The product of TOSS, which is waste pellet with the calories of 3300 – 4500 kcal/kg can be easily produced and managed by the local communities, small medium enterprises, and NGOs. For the business purposes, the pellets can be stored moreover transported to the off-taker, such as PT PLN (Persero) Group, Independent Power Producers, Cement Companies, as well as local / home industries. TOSS might solve both waste (municipal, forestry, fishery, and farm industries) problems, while KLISI might solve trilemma energy: energy security, energy equity, and energy sustainability because the raw material of energy and its power plant will be managed by local communities.
With the successful pilot projects in Klungkung, Bali; Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat; and Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur, in November 2019, the director-general of EBTKE invited PT PLN (Persero) Group to discuss TOSS-LK for the 2020-2025’s plans. In 2020, PT PLN (Persero) has initiated to expand, scale-up, moreover commercialize the concept of TOSS-KLISI to solve both waste management and national electrification programs. In order to support PT PLN (Persero) in creating supply-value chain management of TOSS-LK as well as providing technicians, machineries, bio activators, and doing community shared value, the ministry of energy and mineral resources through directorate general EBTKE commanded Dr. Ir. Supriadi Legino and Arief Noerhidayat, S.I.Kom., MSc. to create a startup company.
The ministry of energy and mineral resources and PT PLN (Persero) therefore will focus on co-firing and distributed power generation program. However, it needs comprehensive feasibility studies. Parallels with that, the semi-commercial project has to be done by 2020/2021 to propose public policy, which related to the whole supply-value chain activities of TOSS-LK. It includes the policy of waste pellets trading (rp/kg). Additionally, the semi-commercial projects are beneficial to monitor, assess, moreover improve the continuous production and supply of waste pellets from local communities. In terms co-firing, the semi-commercial project will be executed in Steam / coal fired power plant at Jeranjang, Lombok in Nusa Tenggara Barat, Steam Power Plant at Bolok, Kupang, and Ropa, Flores in Nusa Tenggara Timur.
Despite the three targets in waste management solution, 23 per cent renewable energy implementation by 2025, and 100 per cent ratio electrification, the goals of TOSS-LK therefore will create the circular economy. The tangible and intangible benefits will be obtained by empowering local people and local small medium enterprises as the producer of waste pellets and the technician of TOSS-KLISI. The continuity supply of waste pellets has become the primary concern. In this part, comestoarra have responsibilities to create the community-based waste to energy strategy, the standard operational procedure, and control the community-based waste to energy production. To support these actions, comestoarra has to do regular socialization, transfer knowledge, intensive communication with local government and local community. In terms of distributed power generation, the semi-commercial projects will be set up in remote areas and islands, especially in East Indonesia by implementing hybrid technologies, such as small scale scattered diesel-gasification, photovoltaic, wind turbine, and storing the energy to the battery.
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The basic concept of TOSS is biodrying (peuyeumisasi) all kind of waste on 2x1x1 meter bamboo box. After 3-7 days (depends on the characteristic of waste), the waste will dry and the volume will reduce until 50 percent. The next step is crushing moreover pelletizing the dried waste. The moisture content of waste pellets are below 15 percent with the calories in between 3200 – 4400 kcal/kg. After tested in the laboratory, the pellets is equal with the middle-ranked coal, which can be used for gasification and co-firing for Steam / coal fired Power Plant. Amazingly the co-firing with pellets will reduce the gas emission such as CO2, NOX, and SOX
The distributed power generation concept has to be implemented by the government due to the geographical condition and social-psychological aspects in Indonesia, especially in rural and remote area in East Indonesia. The biggest challenges to achieve 100 percent electrification ratio are the high investment in land and acquisition, social capital, financial closing, complex permit procedures, and for electricity projects - right of way for transmission and distribution lines. By implementing distributed power generation concept, the distributed ecosystem will be created. Additionally the stakeholders can do collaboration by sharing the opportunity, capital and operational expenditure Incentives, and the way to engage with local community
The supply and value chain model of TOSS allows buyer and supplier to create the relationship marketing strategies by focusing on enhancing financial performance. This measured in terms of cost efficiency, optimizing production and operational activity, and accurattion in time delivery and capacity, while keep maintaining the quality of the product. In accordance with this, without the ability of the buyer-supplier to generate mutual trustand commitment, the need for relational capability and continuous improvement cannot be met, and there is a tendency for conflict within the relational activity. Following the explanation above, it can be argued that interfunctional coordination between buyer and supplier is the role of market orientation, which plays in developing a relationship marketing strategies
To support he community based waste to energy and distributed power generation program, comestoarra needs KLISI application as the online platform to monitor, control, maintain, and support the whole supply-value chain activities. This system is developed by combining the information technology and visual communication technology, therefore the users can easily managed and got the updated information. Additionally, the users can easily engaged with the operators for the purpose of operation and maintenance
In the future, Indonesia has to install Distributed Hybrid system by combining diesel-gasification engine, photovoltaic, and wind power to prevent the intermittency issues in distributed power generation installation. This model will be sufficient in rural and remote area. Additionally this model can be developed without necessarily waiting for the construction of interconnected distribution lines. Technically, distributed hybrid system will also reduce the transmission losses and the problem of excessive transformer overload and drop voltage. It also can be an answer to the government target of having 23% of renewable portion in the national energy by 2025
TOSS has become the national program aim to support the government to achieve the target of 23 percent of renewable energy implementation by 2025. Additionally, TOSS can be a solution for 100 percent electrification ratio in remote and rural areas. In relation to this, the directorate general of EBTKE has suggested Dr. Ir. Supriadi Legino to create the startup company to run the commercial aspect of TOSS. Therefore in 2019, comestoarra was set up, lead by Arief Noerhidayat
PT PLN (Persero) has fully supported the research of TOSS since 2017. In 2020, PT PLN (Persero) has officially set up the regulation as the offtaker of waste to energy product (pallets/briquettes). Due to the board of director's regulation number 001.P/DIR/2020, PT PLN will buy the pallets/briquettes as the material for cofiring with coal in steam power plant. The requirements of pallets/briquettes has been specifically mentioned on that regulation
as the startup company, comestoarra succeeded to achieve the first winner in PGN startup competiton in 2019. Therefore, PGN has progressed in incubation process and will involve in TOSS project with comestoarra
Arief Noerhidayat and his colleagues from PT PLN (Persero): Arif Rohmatin and Ahmad Murdani and from the East Nusa Tenggara Province: Frederich Kiuk got the Australia Awards by proposing the concept of community based waste to energy for distributed power generation in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara Timur. The consulate general Australia in Indonesia: Anthea Griffin (consulate general Australia in Bali ) and Chris Barnes (consulate general Australia in Surabaya) have visited the project in Bali and have seen the technology in Surabaya. The community based waste to energy for distributed power generation concept therefore can be the diplomacy strategy for both countries to collaborate in expanding the waste to energy and hybrid distributed power generation technologies
Arief Noerhidayat got scholarship from Murdoch University as the part of Australia Award Program. Murdoch University has intensively communicated with Arief Noerhidayat in order to cooperate in waste to energy research and development program. Murdoch University has also visited the community based waste to energy project in Bali and hopefully will be formally make collaboration agreement in 2020
Sekolah Tinggi Manajemen Logistik Indonesia is the partner to provide the best human resource in supply-value chain management for comestoarra. the collaboration is including the research program in logistic, transportation, and Information Technology, which important for the development of TOSS in Indonesia
PT LAGAS MANDIRI is a small medium enterprise, which manufacture the crusher, pallets/briquettes, gasifier engines designed by comestoarra
PT Jati Karya Perkasa is a small medium enterprise that helps comestoarra to manage the TOSS projects in Java regions. PT JKP has also funded comestoarra to do research, observation, and do material testing before the implementation of TOSS
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